piensos y mascotas

Piensos y mascotas con urolitiasis

Mi mascota tiene urolitiasis, ¿qué puedo hacer? ¿Cuál es el manejo dietético de mascotas con urolitiasis? ¿Están relacionados los piensos y mascotas con urolitiasis?

 

La enfermedad del tracto urinario inferior (FLUTD) es un desorden común, tanto en perros como en gatos adultos. La urolitiasis es un tipo específico de FLUTD caracterizada por diferentes signos clínicos asociados a la presencia microscópica de cristales urinarios (cristaluria), o bien de concreciones macroscópicas (urolitos o cálculos) dentro de la vejiga o del tracto urinario inferior. Los cristales urinarios o urolitos pueden estar compuestos por diferentes minerales cuya identificación es importante, ya que el tratamiento dietético debe estar dirigido hacia el tipo específico de urolito que presente nuestra mascota.

 

En esta sección, hablaremos de piensos y mascotas con urolitiasis, del manejo dietético de los tipos más frecuentes de esta enfermedad, qué pienso debemos dar a nuestra mascota y cómo debemos administrarlo.

 

Piensos y mascotas con cálculos de estruvita.

Diferentes estudios han demostrado que más del 95% de los urolitos en gatos están compuestos por estruvita. En el caso de los perros el porcentaje es menor y están más asociados a la presencia de infecciones urinarias.

 

La formación de cálculos de estruvita, en el caso de los gatos, se ve favorecida por dietas con contenidos elevados de magnesio, fósforo, calcio, cloro y fibra, con niveles moderados de proteínas y bajas en grasas, ya que los urolitos de estruvita se forman cuando la orina presenta exceso de amonio y fosfato, teniendo esta un pH superior a 6,5.

 

y piensos mascotas

 

Con el fin de reducir o prevenir la presencia de cálculos de estruvita, en primer lugar, debemos eliminar la causa que lo produce: una infección urinaria o retirar quirúrgicamente el cálculo si fuese necesario. La administración del pienso adecuado en estas mascotas es un punto clave en el manejo de esta enfermedad. Este pienso deberá promover la diuresis y un pH urinario inferior a 6,3. Los piensos enlatados, bajos en magnesio, acidificantes y con unos niveles de sodio suficientes para estimular el consumo de agua, son los idóneos para disolver los urolitos de estruvita. Siempre se recomienda continuar con esta dieta durante un mes más tras la confirmación radiográfica de la disolución del urolito.

 

Por lo tanto, algunos puntos claves en el manejo dietético de mascotas con urolitos de estruvita son:

 

  • Tratar y prevenir la recurrencia de las infecciones bacterianas del tracto urinario.
  • Seleccionar un pienso acidificante de la orina (pH 6,0 a 6,5).
  • Elegir piensos con bajo contenido en magnesio (<0’12% de la materia seca).
  • Alta digestibilidad en el pienso.
  • Alimentar con pienso enlatado o añadiendo agua al pienso seco.
  • Favorecer la ingesta de pequeñas cantidades de comida durante todo el día.
  • No administrar suplementos o golosinas.

 

Piensos y mascotas con cálculos de oxalato cálcico.

La presencia de cálculos de oxalato cálcico en gatos ha ido en aumento a medida que se han reducido los de estruvita, siendo una de las causas el uso de dietas acidificantes con bajos niveles de magnesio. Otras causas que pueden suponer factores de riesgo para el desarrollo de urolitos de oxalato cálcico  son diferencias genéticas y de sexo, la inactividad, la obesidad y factores ambientales, así como dietas con exceso de vitamina D y ácido ascórbico, con contenidos deficientes en sodio y en potasio, y diferentes factores que contribuyan al aumento de calcio en sangre (hipercalcemia).

 

piensos mascotas y

 

A diferencia de los urolitos de estruvita, los de oxalato cálcico no pueden disolverse farmacológicamente, por lo que deben extraerse. Además, una vez eliminados, requieren medidas preventivas pues el riesgo de recidivas es elevado.

 

Por un lado, el aumento del consumo de agua es clave en la prevención de los urolitos de oxalato cálcico. Además, debe evitarse un consumo excesivo de calcio y de oxalato con el pienso. También es necesario tener en cuenta que el fósforo de la dieta no debe ser ni restringido ni suplementado, al igual que  el magnesio, ya que tanto la restricción como la suplementación de magnesio se han asociado con un aumento del riesgo de urolitiasis de oxalato cálcico.

 

En aspectos generales, debemos eliminar los cálculos, evitar la hipercalcemia y  proporcionar un pienso con las siguientes características:

 

  • Que produzca una orina neutra o ligeramente acidificada (pH 6,3 a 6,9).
  • Con unos niveles óptimos de calcio y magnesio.
  • De alta digestibilidad.
  • Con un contenido en sodio moderado y suplementado con citrato potásico.

 

Piensos y mascotas con urolitiasis, basados en Fresh Nutrition.

Tal y como hemos comentado anteriormente, debemos cuidar mucho la alimentación en las mascotas con urolitiasis. Por ello, evitar aditivos artificiales, así como excesos de conservantes, colorantes o aromatizantes, puede suponer un mejor manejo de la enfermedad. Por esta razón, administrar una nutrición fresca y formulada por veterinarios especialistas, basada en la Fresh Nutrition, es la mejor opción para prevenir esta enfermedad.

 

 

 

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