enfermedades y alimentacion en mascotas

Enfermedades y alimentación en mascotas: ¿Qué alimentación proporcionarles?

Enfermedades y alimentación en mascotas son dos líneas paralelas. Al igual que la nutrición puede constituir parte del tratamiento de determinadas patologías, existen otras enfermedades que están relacionadas con la alimentación.


Cada vez estamos más habituados a escuchar que una persona es intolerante o alérgica a algún componente del alimento, y es que, hoy en día, son muchas las intolerancias y alergias alimentarias descritas en personas. Al igual que las personas, nuestras mascotas también pueden desarrollar enfermedades nutricionales clínicas como consecuencia de la incapacidad para absorber, asimilar o metabolizar determinados nutrientes específicos.

En algunas ocasiones, existe predisposición de ciertas razas a padecer determinadas patologías y, en estos casos, parece existir un factor genético.

Algunos ejemplos específicos de enfermedades padecidas por los perros como consecuencia de su incapacidad de metabolizar determinados nutrientes son la alteración del metabolismo de lípidos o del metabolismo de la purina. Otras enfermedades nutricionales incluirían la alteración del metabolismo de vitamina B12, cobre y zinc.  Algunas de estas alteraciones las trataremos a continuación, evaluando cómo podemos modificar su alimentación para evitar la sintomatología clínica en nuestros animales de compañía. Y es que enfermedades y alimentación en mascotas van cogidas de la mano.

Enfermedades y alimentación en mascotas: hiperlipidemia.

El término hiperlipidemia muchas veces se emplea para englobar, de forma general, la hiperlipoproteinemia (niveles altos de lipoproteínas en sangre), hipercolesterolemia (niveles elevados de colesterol en sangre) o hipertrigliceridemia (altos niveles de triglicéridos en sangre). La mayoría de los casos de hiperlipidemia en nuestros animales de compañía, se producen de forma secundaria a un trastorno que altera el metabolismo de los lípidos, como pueden ser la diabetes, el hipotiroidismo, o la pancreatitis, entre otras.

Dos de los trastornos hereditarios del metabolismo de los lípidos que podemos detectar, con relativa frecuencia, son la hiperlipidemia del Schnauzer Miniatura  (más del 30% de los perros de esta raza pueden verse afectados, aunque no todos muestran signos clínicos, que serían similares a los de una pancreatitis aguda); y la deficiencia en la lipoproteína lipasa de los gatos (en los que se observan formación de nódulos subcutáneos o lipemia retinalis).


alimentacion enfermedades y en mascotas


El objetivo del tratamiento de la hiperlipidemia primaria es reducir y mantener las concentraciones de lípidos en sangre a unos niveles que no supongan un riesgo para su salud, por lo que se recomienda que la alimentación en estas mascotas sea restringida en grasas y con suplementos de ácidos grasos omega-3 siendo, a  menudo, suficiente para el control de los signos clínicos.

Enfermedades y alimentación en mascotas: alteración en el metabolismo de purina.

Las purinas son componentes de los ácidos nucleicos que se encuentran en el núcleo de las células vegetales y animales. El ácido úrico es un producto obtenido tras el metabolismo de la purina y, a partir de éste, se puede sintetizar alantoína que se elimina con la orina. Los dálmatas son la única raza de perros que excretan tanto ácido úrico como alantoína en su orina como productos finales del metabolismo de la purina, presentando mayores niveles de estos productos en sangre y en orina. El exceso de ácido úrico en la orina puede dar lugar a el desarrollo de urolitiasis (formación de cálculos).

El tratamiento de la litiasis en el perro, es, por lo general, quirúrgico; no obstante, podemos tratar de forma profiláctica a estos animales con una dieta baja en purina, proporcionando niveles restringidos de proteína pero de elevada calidad. Otras indicaciones son la administración oral de bicarbonato de sodio, con el fin de reducir la acidez de la orina y evitar la formación de estos cálculos, así como el control de cualquier infección del tracto urinario que pueda ayudar a la recurrencia de esta enfermedad.


mascotas y alimentacion en enfermedades


Son muchas las enfermedades que podemos detectar en nuestros peludos compañeros como consecuencia de una alimentación deficiente, más aún si éstas presentan una carencia de base porque, como hemos dicho anteriormente, enfermedades y alimentación en mascotas son dos conceptos que van unidos.

Teniendo en cuenta que nuestro animal de compañía puede tener dificultad a la hora de absorber o metabolizar determinados nutrientes, la opción ideal es la nutrición fresca o fresh nutrition, con el fin de prevenir una enfermedad clínica, proporcionando un pienso de buena calidad, con productos frescos, menor cantidad de harinas y aromatizantes artificiales, y un aporte vitamínico y en aceites omega 3 y omega 6 adecuado y ajustado a sus necesidades en cada momento de su etapa vital.



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