carbohidratos

Alimentación saludable para perros: carbohidratos

¿Qué son los carbohidratos? ¿Son necesarios en una alimentación saludable para perros?

 

Los hidratos de carbono o carbohidratos son compuestos que se encuentran en muchos alimentos, la mayoría de origen vegetal. Son nutrientes básicos con varias funciones en el organismo entre ellas la de obtención de energía: los hidratos de carbono son digeridos y transformados en glucosa, el combustible de las células. Hay numerosos tipos de carbohidratos, entre ellos el almidón, la maltodextrina, la celulosa, la lactosa o la pectina. Las principales fuentes de hidratos de carbono que encontramos en los alimentos para perros son los cereales y algunos tubérculos como la patata o la batata.

 

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En el mercado podemos encontrar una gran variedad de marcas de pienso para perros que incluyen un porcentaje variable de carbohidratos que puede oscilar entre un 25% y un 70%. Sin embargo, actualmente existe un debate abierto sobre la necesidad o no de incluir hidratos en una dieta saludable para perros.

Años atrás se consideraba que el perro era omnívoro. La tendencia actual en nutrición veterinaria se apoya en estudios científicos que posicionan al perro como carnívoro. Como la dieta natural de los carnívoros no incluye grandes porcentajes de carbohidratos, se ha cuestionado si estos son necesarios en una dieta para perros. No obstante, los nutricionistas veterinarios también admiten la capacidad del perro de digerir carbohidratos complejos como el almidón. Esta habilidad no la comparten con sus parientes salvajes los lobos y parece ser que ha sido adquirida a lo largo del proceso de domesticación. Los perros se clasifican así como carnívoros con la etiqueta de omnívoros oportunistas, que en caso de necesidad, pueden ingerir y usar los carbohidratos para obtener energía.

Otro punto que cuestiona la necesidad de los carbohidratos en las dietas para perros es la obesidad. Ya hemos explicado que los carbohidratos son transformados en glucosa durante la digestión. Esta glucosa pasa al torrente sanguíneo y es usada por las células del organismo como combustible. Pero el problema aparece cuando hay más glucosa disponible que la que el organismo necesita. En ese caso, el cuerpo almacena el exceso de glucosa en forma de grasa. Si el aporte de carbohidratos en la dieta de tu perro es excesivamente elevado, éste podría aumentar de peso e incluso en algunos casos sufrir obesidad.

 

Entonces, ¿carbohidratos en una dieta saludable sí o no?

Por supuesto, decimos sí a los carbohidratos pero en la cantidad apropiada. Los carbohidratos no solo aportan energía, cumplen más funciones necesarias para una vida sana y equilibrada de tu mascota. Por ejemplo, los carbohidratos aportan fibra alimentaria que ayuda a mantener la salud digestiva de tu mascota y también actúan como componentes estructurales de las células.

Carbohidratos en una dieta saludable y Fresh Nutrition

Una dieta saludable para perros debe incluir hidratos de carbono. El secreto del éxito está en el equilibrio y en la calidad –dos de los principios de Fresh Nutrition– de los ingredientes usados para aportar los carbohidratos.

 

  • Calidad: no todos los cereales son igual de apropiados para tu mascota. Algunos tipos de cereales pueden ser más calóricos o producir alergias alimentarias en algunas mascotas.

El arroz y la avena son cereales adecuados para tu perro: son de bajo índice glicémico y ayudan a mantener constante el nivel de glucosa en la sangre. Además, sus hidratos son altamente digestibles y asimilables.

 

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La patata o la batata también son una excelente fuente de carbohidratos y una excelente alternativa a los cereales en las dietas grain-free: son muy digestibles y su almidón, al igual que el del arroz, regula el tránsito intestinal.

El arroz, la avena, la patata y la batata son fuente además de otros nutrientes como minerales y algunas vitaminas. Y si tu perro es activo, los carbohidratos que aportan estos alimentos ayudarán a que tu perro disponga de una fuente de energía a lo largo de todo el día.

 

  • Equilibrio: la cantidad de hidratos de carbono en la dieta no debe ser excesivamente alta ya que las proteínas y las grasas también son fundamentales en la dieta de tu perro. Un 70% en el pienso es demasiada cantidad y podrá causar obesidad en tu perro. Una dieta con un 25% de carbohidratos puede ser suficiente para un perro con actividad normal, pero insuficiente para un perro muy activo. Así pues, la cantidad dependerá de cada caso particular.

Si quieres acertar, trata de escoger una alimentación fresca, sana, equilibrada y de calidad, adaptada a la actividad y características de tu mascota. Y si tienes alguna duda, consulta siempre a tu veterinario nutricionista.

 

 

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